7 selection of the development of aerospace technology

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There are front -line workers, as well as students in schools, art majors, and aerospace enthusiasts.Among them, there are many works with rich and imaginative pictures of elementary and middle school students.The solicitation activity effectively inspired the enthusiasm of young people to participate in the aerospace industry.Below the mountain grass fragrance sorted out the development of 7 Chinese aerospace technology for everyone, hoping to help you better write aerospace development.

Keywords: shipping insurance; policy analysis; shipping center; Tianjin Port.

The International Shipping Center is a gathering place for people flow, logistics, information flow, and capital flow, and is the growth pole that drives regional economic development.In May 2011, the State Council formally approved the "Construction Plan for the Core Function Zone of the Tianjin Northern International Shipping Center", and approved various supporting measures for the construction of the core functional area of the Northern International Shipping Center to accelerate the constructionUnprecedented historical opportunities.

The shipping industry has high risk, large risk loss, and the safety circulation of various elements requires the strong support of the insurance industry, especially the shipping insurance.

To this end, our bureau investigated the insurance companies, shipowns and China Shipbuilding Industry Investment Fund, etc. to understand the current status of shipping insurance development, analysis of the main issues and reasons, and put forward countermeasures to improve the quality of shipping insurance development, serve the International Shipping Center Center, and serve the International Shipping CenterConstruction.

First, Tianjin's advantageous conditions for development of shipping insurance.

Shipping insurance, also known as "MAINE Insurance", mainly includes cargo insurance, ship insurance, maritime liability insurance and other types of insurance. By providing risk transfer and losses for maritime transportation, and compensation, transfer and decentralized shipping business risks to ensure international international risks to ensure international international risks to ensure international internationalThe shipping industry runs steadily.Shipping insurance is the oldest type of insurance in the world. It has a long history in my country and even Tianjin, and has the huge potential of inheritance and development.

(1) Tianjin's geographical advantages provide abundant potential insurance needs for shipping insurance.

Tianjin Port is not only the largest main trunk port in northern China, but also the world's highest -level artificial deep -water port and container hub port facing Northeast Asia and radiating in Central Western Asia.Tianjin Port has 95 berths above 10,000 tons. In 2010, cargo throughput was 413.25 million tons, ranking third in the nation's coastal ports. In 2009, container throughput ranked 11th in the world.

The Tianjin Port Sea and Lu Xiangxiang have a large radiation surface.Sea -to -hinter routes reach more than 180 countries and regions in the world.Lu Xiang's direct hinterland includes Tianjin, Beijing, Hebei, and Shanxi. In 2010, the GDP total was 523.3316 billion yuan, accounting for 13 % of the country. The total foreign trade import and export volume was 438.5 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for about 15 % of the country.

With the construction and development of the International Shipping Center, Tianjin's transportation business will continue to grow rapidly.A large number of shipping business provides a huge market demand for the development of Tianjin Shipping Insurance.

(2) Tianjin Shipping Insurance has a good historical tradition and can carry the development requirements of the shipping center.

As a port city, Tianjin has a long history of shipping insurance.After the Second Opium War, the modern insurance industry, accompanied by British businessmen in Tianjin, has begun to be born in Tianjin.Since the resumption of the insurance industry in the 1980s, Tianjin Shipping Insurance has gradually resumed development.As of November 2011, Tianjin has a total of 2 Property Insurance Corporation, 21 branches, and 25 insurance brokerage and branches.At present, shipping insurance insurance types mainly include ship insurance and freight insurance. International shipping insurance, including ocean ship insurance and import and export freight insurance, is the main body of Tianjin Shipping Casualty Insurance.In 2010, Tianjin ship insurance premium income was 218 million yuan, ranking eighth among 36 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, and planned cities in the country, accounting for 4.30 % of the national ship insurance;Two, accounting for 2.50 % of the country's proportion; shipping insurance provides risk protection of 409.681 billion yuan for ships and goods.Tianjin Shipping Insurance has the potential to further develop and grow and serve the construction of the International Shipping Center.

(3) Policy support provides convenience for the development of shipping insurance.

First, national policy support is large.In May 2011, the State Council formally approved the "Construction Plan for the Core Function Zone of the Tianjin Northern International Shipping Center", and agreed to carry out the international ship registration system, international shipping tax, shipping financial business and rental business in the core carrier of Tianjin Dongjiang.Pilot innovation of policy innovation, this is the most interested in supporting the development of the international shipping industry, the most intensive, the most policy coverage, and the strongest systematic.In August 2011, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation's "Notice on the Business Tax Policy on the Core Function Zone of the Tianjin North International Shipping Center" clearly stipulated that from August 1, 2011, insurance companies registered in Tianjin have obtainedRevenue, exempt business tax.Second, the Tianjin Municipal Government and the China Insurance Regulatory Commission gives policy concessions.The "Notice on Printing and Distributing the" Instant Policy of Tianjin Promoting the Development of Modern Service Industry "is given a one -time funding subsidy for the new insurance institutions in Tianjin, and the tax reduction and exemption of insurance institutions and executives will give a certain period of time.The "Opinions on Accelerating the Innovation and Development of the Innovation and Pilot Zone of Tianjin Binhai New District" gives the policy support for major reform and innovation measures in the insurance industry in Tianjin.Tianjin Shipping Insurance has been strongly supported by many policies, and business innovation and development are more convenient.

2. The development of Tianjin Shipping Insurance.

The scale of ship insurance in my country is less than 5 % of the global market, which is not commensurate with the status of international shipping powers.Tianjin Shipping Insurance premiums only account for 3.2 % of the country's proportion, which also reflects the problem of insufficient development.The survey learned that 70 % of the ship property insurance of Zhongyuan Tianjin Branch was underwritten by domestic insurance companies; liability insurance and other 30 % of ship property insurance were basically insured to the domestic and foreign insurance claims associations.In addition, most freight insurance is underwritten by foreign companies, reflects that shipping insurance cannot adapt to the rapid development of the shipping industry.The reason for the lack of development of Tianjin shipping insurance is mainly in the following aspects:

(1) Lack of insurance subjects.

On the one hand, the number of insurance companies is insufficient.At present, there are only two Chinese -funded Chinese Property Insurance Corporation headquarters in Tianjin, and the shipping division of the Insurance Corporation has not yet established.Shipping insurance has high insurance insurance, high risks, and special support for reinsurance, and reinsurance institutions are still blank.On the other hand, insurance brokers are underdeveloped.In the mature insurance market abroad, most of the shipping insurance business of insurance companies is underwritten through insurance brokers.At present, Tianjin Insurance Brokerage Institution has a low level of operation and management, lack of human resources, relatively low professional and technical level, and weak awareness of risk prevention. Insurance agencies that specialize in shipping insurance business are still blank and cannot meet the shipping insurance business of the brokerage business.Need to restrict the development of Tianjin Shipping Insurance.

(2) Insufficient professionals.

The high professionalism and technical nature of shipping insurance put forward high requirements for employees, and Tianjin's professional talents engaged in shipping insurance are obviously insufficient.On the one hand, the existing education and training system has insufficient total number of shipping insurance talents.Taking Renmin Insurance Co., Ltd. as an example, there are less than 20 staff members who are engaged in ship insurance. They also understand insurance, but also to understand foreign languages, shipping, sea merchants and maritime affairs, and laws of law.Equipment.On the other hand, insurance companies have not paid enough attention and status to shipping insurance practitioners.Shipping insurance has been invested in the early stage, high labor costs, and slow results.In the current assessment mechanism, most of the expenses and income are directly linked to premiums and profits, which to a certain extent to a certain extent the enthusiasm of carried out shipping insurance. It is difficult to form a professional talent growth and accumulation mechanism within the company.

(3) Insurance products cannot meet demand.

Shipping insurance products are limited, and its products are seriously homogeneous.On the one hand, the shipping insurance product system is not perfect, the insurance provided by each insurance company is similar, and the logistics liability insurance, the dock operation liability insurance and other insurances are relatively small.On the other hand, most of the provisions of the ship insurance of insurance companies are the clauses of the 1986 insurance insurance insurance in 1986. It has been more than 20 years since it has been adapted to the development and changes of the shipping business.

(IV) weak service capabilities.

The first is that the risk prevention and control that the insurer currently needs is basically blank.Insurance companies lack risk prevention and control methods and measures for loading and unloading, transportation and transit of ships, goods, etc., and cannot provide professional suggestions and loss control programs in disaster reduction and loss; second, the lack of international service networks.The target of shipping insurance is a huge amount of property moved worldwide, and it requires timely service, rescue and claim investigation of timely services.Tianjin Insurance Company and intermediary agencies do not currently have such a network, which limits the level of insurance service; third, insurance companies usually pick new ships and good ships to underwrite, so that small and medium -sized ships have to go to foreign insurance companies to insure.

(5) High business risk.

In the international market, ship insurance has been operating losses.On the one hand, the payment rate is high.Relevant agencies show that the payment rate of ship insurance from the international market from 1999 to 2003 was more than 75 %, and the risk of underwriting was high.From 2008 to 2010, the comprehensive compensation rate of Tianjin Shipping Insurance reached 98.38 %. The high level of compensation rate caused a high amount of underwriting losses, which caused great pressure on the operation of insurance companies.On the other hand, the rate of rates continues to decline.Due to the price reductions of various insurance companies in Tianjin in recent years, freight insurance rates have continued to decrease.In 2010, the Tianjin freight insurance rate rate dropped from 0.11 % in 2006 to 0.06 %, far lower than the international insurance market level, and the operating risk of freight insurance gradually increased.

(6) Information communication is blocked.

Shipping insurance is a high -risk business, and insurance companies need to obtain information in many aspects to support insurance actuaries.But the channels for obtaining data information are still very limited.On the one hand, no organizational and large -scale exchange activities are formed.Insurance companies cannot share the knowledge and experience of insurance, shipping, trade, maritime and maritime businessmen between insurance companies, insurance companies and related industries.On the other hand, my country lacks relevant information platforms in the sharing of ship information, which has led insurance companies to be able to accurately understand the risk of the insured ships in a timely manner and weaken the level of risk control of the insured business.

Third, the experience of important international shipping insurance markets.

Learn from the development experience of the important international shipping insurance market can help Tianjin insurance industry improve its strength and better support and promote the construction of the international shipping center.At present, the important international shipping insurance markets are London, New York, Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong, etc. The development of its shipping insurance has the following experience:

(1) Founded in the developed areas of shipping business.

Most of the important international shipping insurance markets are developed from the International Shipping Center with developed shipping business. For example, London was once the world's most important shipping center, laying a solid foundation for the long -term international competitiveness of shipping insurance.So far, the revenue of shipping insurance premiums in London accounts for more than 20 % of the global market.Important international shipping insurance markets such as New York, Singapore, Tokyo and Hong Kong are also important international shipping centers.

(2) Rich various institutions.

The important international shipping insurance market is not only a concentrated area of various international shipping organizations, but also has a large number of insurance companies and intermediary agencies, which provides rich supply and demand for the development of shipping insurance.Taking London as an example, as the world's largest international insurance market and the main reinsurance center, London has more than 800 insurance companies, 3,200 insurance brokerage companies, and more than 80,000 insurance brokers.In addition to insurance institutions, London is also the location of more than ten international shipping organizations including the International Maritime Organization and the International Shipping Association. In addition, many international shipping organizations have set up regional offices in London.

(3) Pay attention to talent cultivation.

The government's support of the system provides talent protection for the development of the shipping insurance business.The Hong Kong government provides subsidies and funding for the training of the shipping industry, and provides related reward plans; the Singapore government contributes to the Maritime Foundation every year to help students complete the navigation -related studies;Education, professional institutions provide professional certification, exchanges, training companies, and industry associations provide specialized training to jointly build the world's leading and systematic professional shipping service education and certification training system.

(4) Actively provide products and services that are suitable for marketing.

On the one hand, shipowners and cargo owners can facilitate the required insurance products.In addition to traditional products such as shell insurance and freight insurance, it can also easily buy insurance types such as carrier liability insurance, dock liability insurance, pirate insurance, war insurance, etc., and can even order insurance products according to their own needs.On the other hand, the insured can enjoy the system, comprehensive and thoughtful insurance services and risk management and control.The insured can also obtain risk management and control programs such as how to pay less danger and loss after insurance, and how to reduce losses after the insured ships and goods, and obtain various training for relevant personnel.Once the insurance institution is out of danger, the insurance institution uses it to cover the global service outlets to help the insured to get survey, claims, and rescue services in time.

(5) Government give preferential tax policies.

In view of the important role of shipping insurance in the shipping center and the characteristics of the profitability of shipping insurance, the important international shipping insurance market has implemented preferential tax policies for shipping insurance to support the development of shipping insurance.For example, Singapore is exempted from income tax for ship insurance and related liability insurance income, and personal income tax implements a low progressive tax rate of 2 % to 28 %.The operating tax rates for shipping insurance for shipping insurance are low, and some states also provide levy tax preferences, while personal income tax deduction projects and exemption projects are more.

For details, see Table 1 below.

4. Countermeasures for the development of shipping insurance in Tianjin.

Tianjin Shipping Insurance faces good development opportunities, has a good development foundation, and has the possibility of rapid development of international shipping insurance.It is recommended to accelerate the development of shipping insurance from the following aspects to promote the construction of the shipping center:

(1) Gathering shipping insurance subjects.

On the one hand, attracting the domestic shipping insurance market entities.Strive for the establishment of a shipping insurance professional insurance company and intermediary agencies, and encourage the support of the insurance company to set up a shipping insurance operation center in Tianjin and the existing shipping center of the insurance company to give play to the advantages of professional institutions in terms of talent and technology.Regional, and even the nation's shipping insurance business has driven the development of Tianjin Shipping Insurance.On the other hand, strive to settle in Tianjin.Strive for overseas insurance companies, insurance brokers and other institutions, especially shipping insurance companies to set up institutions in Jin to gather and drive Tianjin shipping insurance business, and prosper the Tianjin shipping insurance market.At the same time, attracting international reinsurance institutions to set up branches in Jin, guiding Tianjin Insurance Company to participate in the international shipping insurance business branch insurance, and drive the development of domestic shipping insurance business.

(2) Strengthen the cultivation of shipping insurance talents.

The development of the shipping insurance industry is inseparable from the training of talents.Shipping insurance talents need to have shipping, law, insurance knowledge and business experience, and have strong communication skills.On the one hand, it is recommended to establish a special training institution for shipping insurance talents, expand the knowledge scope of professional talent training in high schools, and cooperate with universities to train existing shipping insurance practitioners to strengthen the shipping insurance talent team.On the other hand, insurance companies are encouraged to take the initiative to form talent training accumulation and business to carry out a virtuous cycle mechanism.

(3) Encourage shipping insurance products to innovate.

The first is to vigorously promote the innovation of insurance types, develop port liability insurance, employee accident insurance, maritime liability insurance and other insurance types to meet the needs of the insured; the second is to encourage insurance companies to update the insurance clauses of ship insurance, improve the scope of ship insurance liability, and integrate with the international market; threeIt is a shipping insurance information platform for the construction of data sharing among various insurance companies. It can also negotiate with institutions such as the Insurance Association to jointly use data to provide data support for shipping insurance product innovation and risk prevention.

(4) Encourage insurance institutions to improve service quality.

The first is to establish a shipping insurance risk control mechanism, guide insurance companies to strengthen the risk management and control services of shipping insurance business, and provide programs, suggestions, and related training for bidding vessels.Organizational coordination of the International Shipping Association and other organizations, using its global service network to provide emergency rescue and timely survey claims for dangerous ships; the third is to innovate the form of insurance service services.efficiency.

A large -scale aerospace strength

The development of Indian military aerospace began in the 1960s, and it can be divided into two stages: 1962 to 1973 as the first stage, mainly to build an empty rocket launch site and develop air rockets to lay the foundation for the development of carrier rockets;After 1974, it was the second stage, mainly for the development of satellite, remote sensing technology and carrier rockets.After decades of development, India has mastered technologies such as manufacturing and launching carrier rockets, artificial satellites, ground control and recycling.strength.

In the 1990s, the Indian carrier rocket technology entered a mature period.In October 1994, India successfully launched the Polar Satellite Loe Rocket for the first time.In May 1999, India successfully launched three satellites in the "one -arrow Samsung" mode.In April 2001, India's self -developed new carrier rockets equipped with low -temperature rocket engines -the Earth Static Satellite Locate Rockets -D1 launching, successfully sent 1 test communications satellite weighing 1500 kg into the earth synchronous orbit.EssenceHaving a low -temperature rocket technology marks India's key technology of manned space.

In addition, India has successfully developed satellite launch vehicles, increased thrust carrier rockets, polar orbit carrier rockets, and Earth synchronous orbit carrier rockets. These rockets can meet the needs of various aerospaces in India.

India's space launch field conditions are also good.Its rocket launch field mainly includes two launch stadiums of Sriharvita and Donba equator.The Sriharvita launch site is located on the island of Sriholico on the east coast of India. It is located in northern Madlas. It covers an area of about 145 square kilometers.The launch site has the test, assembly and launch facilities of large -scale multi -class rockets and satellite carrier rockets, and builds the tracking, telemetry and communication stations of Indian satellites.The Indian Space Research Center has also expanded the solid booster factory here, which can produce large -sized promoter pillars for multi -stage rocket engines.Affected by the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon, the launch site from 10th to November was the rainy season, but the sun was sufficient and sunny in one year, which was conducive to the outdoor static test and launch test.On October 9, 1971, the Sriharvita launch site was officially put into use, and three "Rosini 25" empty rockets were launched.

The Donba Equest Launa is located 6 kilometers north of the Arabic, Sea Coast, and Kararabon Tervan.Donba's launch area is 2 square kilometers, with 3 launch pads that can launch rockets with a diameter of more than 0.56 meters.The launch site is 64 meters above sea level, with an average annual maximum temperature of 30 ° C and a minimum of 24 ° C. From January to July, the temperature difference change is only 4 ° C, and the average annual humidity is between 58 % and 94 %.In one year, it is mostly north wind, northwest wind and west wind. The average wind speed is 7 meters / hour. The average monthly rainfall is 127 mm.Since it was put into use in November 1963, the launch field has successfully launched some empty rockets from the US Airlines Administration, and various types of earth physics and astronomical research rockets have been launched.Scientists from France, former Federal Germany, Japan, former Soviet Union and Bulgaria have participated in various scientific experiments here.

Ambitional aerospace plan

In order to establish space stations and interstellar bases in space and seize the power of heaven, India is ambitious, and has formulated the aerospace plan for a period of time in the future.

First look at its manned space plan.India believes that only the realization of manned aerospace marks that it has become a real aerospace country, so India attaches great importance to the manned aerospace project.As early as the early 1980s, India began to cultivate astronauts with the help of the former Soviet Union.In April 1984, an astronaut in India took the former Soviet Union's "Alliance" T11 spacecraft to enter the "Rites" space station of the former Soviet Union and stayed on the space station for 7 days.Later, India sent an astronaut to the "Colombia" aerospace aircraft, but in February 2003, the "Colombia" aerospace aircraft exploded, and Indian astronauts were killed.But this has not shaken their determination. Now, India has sent two astronauts to the National Airlines and SEC for training.Future manned space reserve astronauts.

In terms of manned space hardware, India is also actively preparing for war.Now, India has begun to prepare manned space. The Indian Space Research Organization is trying to break through the manned technology through the development of the "space compartment recycling experimental device".After China realized the manned space flight in 2003, it greatly stimulated India.On August 19, 2004, India successfully conducted the "Space Counter Recycling Experimental Device" at the Satiskhawan Space Center.In January 2006, India launched and recycled the unmanned space capsule to prepare for the manned space flight.In addition, India has stated that the military expenses in the next five years will increase significantly, exceeding the military expenses of Western countries such as Britain.Essence

Lunar lunar plan.In 2001, India began to disclose its huge moon landing plan.According to the plan at the time, India's landing of the moon will be carried out in three stages: first to launch a detection device to the moon; then launch the moon landing robot to conduct a number of scientific research on the moon: Finally, the Indian astronaut's moon landing.In September 2003, the Indian government approved plans to launch unmanned spacecraft to the moon by 2008, which marked the official launch of India's lunar exploration project and is being carried out step by step.In September 2008, India announced the launch of the first lunar probe "Moon Airlines No. 1" in mid -to -late October of that year to take high -definition photos on the surface of the moon and analyze the chemical and mineral components on the moon surface.The Indian Space Research Institute also announced that the launch of "Moon Airlines No. 1" is only the first step in the Indian lunar exploration plan.No. 2 "detector.It is said that the "Moon Airlines No. 2" with the Moon Lunar Moon Lunar will collect moon rocks and soil specimens on the surface of the moon, conduct chemical analysis, and spread the data back to the detector.In 2020, India will launch a manned spacecraft to the moon, thereby achieving the moon officer to land on the moon.India's entire manned space plan is expected to cost 2.5 billion to 3 billion US dollars. The ultimate goal is to rush to the moon before China, indicating that India's aerospace technology surpasses China.

Mars plan.India is not satisfied with launching aerospaces such as satellites to space, and its long -term goal is to establish a base in space.Therefore, although India's manned space and moon landing are still planned, India uses Mars as the next space detection target.At the Indo -US Space Cooperation Conference, Indian President suggested that the two countries jointly established a base in Mars in 2050.According to reports, the Indian Space Research Organization is preparing to launch a Mars unmanned detector from 2012 to 2013.Indian Space Research Organization Chairman Madaman Naer said in an interview that the Martian detector launched by India weighs about 500 kg with high resolution and long -range sensing parsing device. It is expected that the entire detection process will last 6 to 8 months., Cost 3 billion rupees.

The "Heaven Army" of the first prototype of the first prototype

Since its development, India has obvious military colors since its development. With the continuous advancement of aerospace technology, its application in the military field has also been intensive.

Develop an military satellite system.In October 2001, India successfully launched the first military reconnaissance satellite- "Test Evaluation Satellite", thus becoming the fifth country in the world with military reconnaissance satellites.The satellite resolution can reach 1 meter, covering 60 % of the world's regions.The test evaluation of the military reconnaissance satellite system consists of 6 satellites to form a reconnaissance satellite constellation, which can increase image collection resolution to 50 cm.In addition, the development and application of the current "national warning and response" satellite system has mentioned the agenda.The system is far greater than existing communication satellites and remote sensing satellites in scale, scope, and complexity.In addition, India has also accelerated the development and launch of the strategic reconnaissance satellite system. Indian aerospace and research organizations are developing Earth Observation Satellites.The satellite carries two full -color cameras with a resolution of 2.5 meters.

Keywords: Chinese civil aviation; safety management; status quo; effective countermeasures

Security is the focus of the focus of Chinese civil aviation in the development process. During the long -term scientific research process, China Civil Aviation has been improved to a certain extent.At the current stage of the development of Chinese civil aviation, in order to adapt to the continuous development of society and economy, civil aviation needs to be promoted in safety management to ensure the rapid development of Chinese civil aviation.Therefore, a detailed analysis of problems in the management of Chinese civil aviation needs to be conducted in detail, and it is necessary to provide effective safety management of Chinese civil aviation based on social development, thereby promoting the rapid development of Chinese civil aviation and laid a good foundation for my country's economic development.

1. The problems of Chinese civil aviation in safety management

(1) The professional level of the Captain Captain's Captain needs to be improved

In the long -term development of my country's civil aviation industry, the captain, as an important figure in the operation of aircraft, has a direct relationship with civil aviation safety.In the process of civil aviation development in China, the number of routes has shown a rising trend year by year, and the development of the times has been passed.However, there are still many problems in the safety management of civil aviation. In the development of the civil aviation industry, the demand for the captain during the development process is large. In order to ensure that the routes can fly smoothly, some civil aviation captains still need to improve far away.There are defects in related skills.Therefore, during the development of civil aviation, due to the low professional level of the captain, it brought some obstacles to the long -term development of Chinese civil aviation. It is necessarydevelop.

(2) There is a gap between the number of aircraft and the route area

With the rapid development of my country's aviation industry, my country's civil aviation aircraft has gradually increased in terms of quantity. However, the scope of civil aviation has been restricted, resulting in the aircraft's impact between aircraft during the flight, which leads to safety. The accident occurred.Therefore, the phenomenon of gap between the number of aircraft and the route area has brought great difficulties to the safety management of Chinese civil aviation, which seriously hindered the rapid development of my country's economy. , So as to continuously improve the security of Chinese civil aviation and provide safety guarantee for people's daily travel.

(3) Affected by natural factors

As an important means of transportation, the aircraft brings great convenience to people's travel. It can reach their destinations in a short period of time, which greatly saves people's time.However, due to its own characteristics, the aircraft is often influenced by the severe weather during the flight, and has become an important reason for threatening the safe flight of Chinese civil aviation.Natural factors are not controlled by people. They have pose a great threat to the safety management of civil aviation, causing Chinese civil aviation to be unable to carry out the relevant work in safety management. As a result, the overall efficiency of China's civil aviation safety management needs to be improved.

2. Effective countermeasures to improve China's civil aviation safety management

(1) Strengthen the technical training of the captain

Mature technology is very important for the captain. In the process of the long -term development of Chinese civil aviation, security has been greatly valued.As an important figure in controlling aircraft, the country needs to strengthen the training of captain technology. In the process of conducting captain screening, strict requirements need to be used to avoid being threatened by security in the process of development of Chinese civil aviation.At the same time, the cultural level of Civil Aviation Captain has improved, and the captains of different nationalities need to integrate cultural integration to continuously improve the level of civil aviation in my country.In addition, strengthening the training of captain technology can provide sufficient guarantee for the safety management of Chinese civil aviation, achieve good management effects, and promote the development of Chinese civil aviation to a higher level.

(2) Expand in the field of aviation

At the present stage of the development of Chinese civil aviation, there is a contradiction between the number of routes and the field of aviation, which is the focus of the hidden dangers of Chinese civil aviation.Therefore, as a relevant Chinese civil aviation department, it is necessary to expand the aviation field and formulate a scientific aviation sector for the number of Chinese civil aviation.In addition, the diversion of regions with more frequent routes to avoid collision of routes during operation during operation, thereby reducing the possibility of safety accidents, increasing the level of civil aviation development, promoting the overall level of China's civil aviation safety management, driving the entire China Airlines as a wholeLong -term development of career.

(3) Strengthen the monitoring of the weather

During the operation of Chinese civil aviation during the operation, due to the nature of the nature, the weather was seriously affected, and there were countless safety accidents caused by the weather in the previous development of civil aviation.因此,要想提高中国民航安全管理的效率,中国民航管理部门需要加强对天气的frontline information监测,针对不同航班的时间进行科学的安排,best rep shoes避免在飞行的过程中出现安全事故,为中国民航的正常运行提供Security, thereby promoting the long -term development of Chinese civil aviation, bringing convenience to people, and promoting the healthy development of the country.

Conclusion

In short, China Civil Aviation, as an important part of my country's aviation development, strengthened the management of civil aviation safety, can effectively improve the overall level of Chinese civil aviation development, which can not only provide convenience for people's travel, but also drive the rapid development of my country's economy.However, there are still many problems in the development of civil aviation in my country at this stage, which has hindered the development of my country's civil aviation.Therefore, as a Chinese civil aviation management department, it is necessary to improve the importance of civil aviation safety in the daily management process, and analyze the reasons for the existing safety issues, so as to find out the root cause of the problem in a short period of time. At the same time, it is effectiveThe method is solved, avoiding safety failures during the operation of the aircraft, providing protection for people's safe travel, and promoting the healthy development of society.

references:

[1] Song Shiming, Huang Xiaoyong, Liu Xiaokang.Research on the Reform of the Civil Aviation Administrative Management System in my country [J]. Journal of National Academy of Administration, 2012, 05: 44-48.

[2] Deng Peng.Countermeasure research on the education management of civil aviation safety defense-based on civil aviation safety defense major in civil aviation safety in the School of Civil Aviation University of China as an example [J]. Contemporary education practice and teaching research, 2015, 08: 83-84.

[3] Deng Peng.Countermeasure research on education management of civil aviation safety defense -takes the major in civil aviation safety defense majors in civil aviation safety in the School of Civil Aviation University of China as an example [J]. Contemporary education practice and teaching research, 2015 (08)

Keywords: quality education; general education; aerospace technology

Aeronautics and Aerospace of General Education

Wen xin, zhang wenhao, qin yuqi

Shenyang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shenyang, 110136, China

Abstract: Discussed the Problem of Knowledge Structure Which Chinese Colleges and Universities Facing Propms at the Present Stage, Combining with the Aeros PACE and AROSPACE General Eduction. by their own Personal Experience, The Author Summed Up the Content, Meaning and Purpose of the Aerospace and AerospaceGeneral Education. Based on the Analysis of Various PROBLEMS Related to the "IntRoduction to Aerospace TechNology" as a Liberal TextBook, this article geiven T He Teaching Improvement and Reform Proposals About the Textbook of Aerospace and Aerospace.

Key Words: Quality-Oriented Education; General Education; Aeronautics and ASTRONAUTICS

With the continuous deepening of colleges and universities' curriculum reform, the status and role of general education in higher education have become increasingly valued.At the same time, due to the rapid development of science and technology and economy, aerospace technology began to enter people's daily life and affect people's thinking and concepts.Especially in recent years, my country's aerospace industry has achieved glorious achievements in worldwide attention, which has attracted people's attention to aerospace technology.In order to meet the needs of the exhibition, many well -known universities in China have set up aerospace majors, such as Tsinghua University, Peking University, Zhejiang University, and Xi'an Jiaotong University.At the same time, some ordinary universities, such as Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, also regard aviation and aerospace (some schools are also called aerospace technology Introduction or aerospace technology expo) as general courses.The author combines his own lecture experience and experience, and refer to the teaching model of generally set up a general course in European and American universities to explore the content, purpose and methods of aerospace and aerospace general education.

1 problem and general education of my country's professional education model

1.1 At this stage, the problems faced by the talent training model of colleges and universities in my country

The current professional education model in my country is the choice of higher education in specific periods (the 1980s) and a specific social background (productive forces need to be recovered). Although this choice was rational at the time, it was active in the development of our society's society. It does not meet the needs of today's social development.

my country's current higher education emphasizes professional division, restricting students 'learning in a narrow knowledge field, which is not conducive to students' comprehensive development.In the past, the "professional counterpart" in the employment of college graduates was no longer the best goal. The better the specialization of higher education, the harder the students became more adaptable to change the job, and the worse the situation faced.

The development of society and technology is changing with each passing day, old jobs have continued to disappear, new jobs continue to appear, and the pace of professional adjustment in colleges and universities cannot keep up with the speed of social occupation updates.To deal with changes in jobs, we must not only cultivate students 'professional ability, but also cultivate students' "general" ability.

1.2 Origin and purpose of general education

General education, known as "General Eduction" abroad, also known as "general education", "general education" and "talent education" [1-4].

General education stems from the 19th century [6-8]. At that time, the academic divisions of the university were too fine and the knowledge was severely split.Fusion.In the 20th century, general education became a compulsory subject for European and American universities.Today, European and American universities are still constantly improving their general education.For example, Harvard University's general education has a long history, and has now gone through five larger general education reforms [7-10].

In our country, the ideas of general education are far from ancient times."Book of Changes" advocates "gentlemen knowing the preface", and "The Golden Mean" advocates that the knowledge should be "learned, interrogative, think carefully, distinguish it, and do it."The ancients believed that learning and knowledge can achieve amazing and integrated."On the Heng" believes that "the ancient and modern times are the people."Therefore, general education aims to cultivate "talent". Its training purpose is to improve the overall quality of people, emphasize the integration of professional knowledge in different fields, attach importance to cultivating people's thinking methods and keen insights.Zhi and other.

2 The significance of aerospace and aerospace general education

Aviation and aerospace courses have always been a public compulsory course for aerospace colleges and universities.The foundation, it played a large role in professional introduction.

In recent years, some ordinary universities in my country have incorporated aviation and aerospace courses into general education. The purpose of teaching includes the following aspects.

2.1 Improve the overall cultural quality of college students

The purpose of university education is to cultivate high -quality talents for comprehensive development. Carrying out general education not only increase knowledge other than college students, but also broaden students' vision.Aviation and aerospace courses can not only help students understand the basic knowledge of aerospace, but also subtly affect the students' world outlook, outlook on life, and values.

2.2 Improve the national pride of college students

As the ancient civilization of the East, China has a long history of longing for flying. The beautiful legends of Chang'e running to the moon, and the brave practice of Wanhu Feitian shows the beautiful wishes of the ancient Chinese desire to fly towards the blue sky.Through the study of aerospace and aerospace courses, students can understand the development and attention of China's aerospace industry, learn the great spirit of aerospace, and enhance students' national self -confidence.

2.3 Encourage college students to be courageous to climb in the face of difficulties

Through the study of aerospace and aerospace courses, students understand the excellent quality and perseverance of the aerospace pioneers.In the eyes of aerospace pioneers, "only unexpected things, nothing to do", through such education, stimulate students to forge ahead and dare to pioneer innovation.

2.4 Inspired students to plan future life

Aviation and aerospace knowledge can inspire and expand people's thinking, especially the emergence of spacecraft, which has greatly promoted human exploration of human beings. The more people people know about the universe, the more they can feel the significance of re -thinking about their own values.EssenceMost of the astronauts flying through the sky have a consensus: "The earth is very small in the universe. Life is just a product in the process of formation of the universe." I remember that a US astronaut said that "yesterday's dream is today's reality today's realityToday's dream is the reality of tomorrow. "With the human understanding of the universe, many people have begun to think about these issues. What is the significance of human existence?How does humans exist?

3 Teaching materials and reforms of aviation and aerospace general education

3.1 Textbook questions

In the eyes of non -professional college students, aerospace technology is very sacred, because the mysterious mysterious mystery of the universe, many college students are more interested in aviation and aerospace courses.As a general class, there is no textbook suitable for general education in my country. Most of them are used to use the "Set" textbooks, such as "Introduction to Aerospace Technology" and "Aerospace Technology", which brings many problems.

(1) Strong professionalism

Open "Introduction to Aerospace Technology" textbooks, there are many illustrations, but most of them are flat maps, structural diagrams, flowcharts and design drawings.For non -engineering college students, the content is too deep, especially liberal arts students. There is no engineering concept, and it is very difficult to understand.

(2) The content is monotonous tedious

Looking at the text content of the "use" textbooks, most of them are definition and concepts, boring, and for non -professional students, what does it mean even if you remember these contents in your heart?In addition, because the space of books is limited, the content of the introduction is often similar to the outline.

(3) There is no value for post -class exercises or thinking questions

Thinking questions are the questions that have been answered after thinking about the brain, and the current thinking questions after the "submitted" textbook chapter are not adapted to the development of the times. Take the first chapter of the post -class thinking title as an example.To describe the history of rockets and missile development ", many students believe that it is" Baidu question ". As long as students use the tools in their hands flexibly, they can" Baidu "to answer. Can such questions be considered thinking questions?

(4) The problems brought by strong organism

Aviation and aerospace are two obvious different concepts and fields. Although they are connected, they cannot be confused for non -professional students.Most of the current "submitted" textbooks are designed as the main line in the content arrangement, and the contents of aircraft, aerospaces and missiles and rockets cross each other [1, 2].If it is a rocket engine or an aviation engine, it is included in the same chapter. For non -professional students, it is slightly laborious to understand.For another example, in the content of the "Flight Construction", there are both the structure of the aircraft and the structure of the spacecraft. According to the analysis of the overall teaching effect, the cross -space structure of this aerospace structure will cause conceptual confusion.

In addition, due to the discipline -led educational model formed by Chinese basic education for many years, and the long -term guidance of exam -oriented education, basic education has become more and more deeper and deeper in a single discipline education.In terms of humanities, souls, and wisdom, weaken is becoming weakened.Basic education has moved towards a model of single thinking, narrow thinking, rigidity, and lack of speculative and creative thinking, which is very unfavorable to the wisdom of the Chinese nation.

In summary, aviation and aerospace, as a general education course, are not the foils of compulsory courses, nor the vassals of professional courses. The importance is not lower than that of professional courses."A gentleman is not different, and good is to be good." You can learn aviation and aerospace courses and master their relevant knowledge. It will help students to broaden their thinking in future life and work.

3.2 Suggestions for the reform of textbooks

For aviation and aerospace courses, only by broadening knowledge and comprehensively introducing the characteristics of different discipline research objects can we more accurately reflect the connotation of this course.In order to enable students to have the foundation of new fields, the content of the curriculum should be forward -looking, and the latest academic achievements and latest technologies in the field of discipline are introduced into teaching content.While reflecting the cutting -edge discipline, the knowledge of students is expanded.

Aerial aerospace technology involves the field of fields that other disciplines cannot be comparable.Therefore, how to maintain the integrity of the course is also worth exploring.As a general class for non -aerospace students, the content of this course should be intellectual and interesting. It needs to be rich in teaching content. It extends from kite flight to the plane.The month extends to the Apollo spacecraft and extends from dinosaurs to the universe to explore, allowing students to learn aviation, aerospace and aerospace knowledge in an example of interest.There is a book in foreign countries abroad. The name is very good, called "aerospace technology without formulas", which is worthy of our reference.

Judging from the work experience of the author's work experience in the field of Shenzhou spacecraft, satellite and space defense, and teaching experience in the knowledge of aviation and aerospace knowledge in several universities in Beijing and Nanjing, the knowledge and content of aerospace and aerospace should pay attention to "Enlightenment", Dedicated to popularization of education, too academicization will make people lose interest.The textbook should be interesting and can be developed in the form of comics.Now there are a series of fun textbooks such as "Comic linear algebra" and "Comics Statistics". In the form of comics, knowledge is taught to students, so that students can learn a lot of knowledge after appreciation, and the two are beautiful.The textbooks of aviation and aerospace general education courses can refer to this form.

4 Conclusion

Aviation and aerospace general education aims to broaden the knowledge of college students, optimize students 'knowledge structure, and improve students' comprehensive quality. Therefore, the focus of aviation and aerospace general education should be placed in macro tasks, flight processes and qualitative knowledge.Let students learn through the learning of aerospace exploration, and understand the connotation of "unity is power, collaboration and hope".Really recognizing "the competition of comprehensive national strength is not only the competition of economic strength, science and technology, and military level, but also the competition of national spiritual power"; understand the great realm of aerospace pioneers in the great journey of climbing the peak of science and technology,Stubborn will and outstanding wisdom have created a brilliant history of aerospace.Instead of describing the details of the technical analysis of technology and its material performance, institutional design, communication and instrumentation, etc.Especially for the requirements of basic theory, it should be based on the mathematicalization of popularization of education, especially not to be used as a professional introduction.It is hoped that the reform courses after the reform will play more role in improving the comprehensive quality of students.

references

[1] Wang Wenhu."Introduction to Aerospace Technology" teaching reform and practice research [J]. Science and technology information, 2007 (7): 78.

[2] Xing Linlin, Ma Wenlai.Primary Education Profile for Public Electric Course [Aerial Aerospace "[J]. China Science and Technology Information, 2009 (3): 257-258.

[3] OrIllion M F. InterdisCiplinary Curriculum and Student Outcomes: The case of a general education count at a research university [J]. The jobal of generalal Education, 2009, 58 (1): 1-18.

[4] Li Manli.General Education -a kind of university education concept [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 1999.

[5] Jin Juanqin, Xie Guihong, Chen Jin.Exploration and practice of the construction of the core curriculum of Zhejiang University [J]. Chinese University Teaching, 2012 (8): 44-45.

[6] Pang Haizi.The dilemma of the construction of general education courses [J]. Jiangsu Higher Education, 2010 (2): 63-66.

[7] Huang Kunjin.General Education of American University [M]. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2006.

[8] Zeng Kaifu.The comparative study of the discipline layout of Harvard University and MIT [J]. Tsinghua University Education Research, 2006 (S1): 135-143.

Keywords: manufacturing; aerospace field; development status quo

1 The types and principles of metal additive materials

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology is different from the traditional manufacturing method of "such as the formation" technology of "such as the formation" technology and the cold processing of car, milling, milling, and grinding, such as casting, forging, and weldingIt is a technology that uses the method of gradually accumulating materials to manufacture physical parts. Compared with traditional material removal-cutting processing technology, it is a bottom-up manufacturing method [2].It is a systematic and comprehensive technology that integrates multi -disciplinary knowledge such as computer software, materials, machinery, and control.Add material manufacturing can be divided into laser additive manufacturing, electron beam additive manufacturing, arc additive manufacturing according to different processing methods. Some processing methods can still be refined into two or more specific methods.The principles and characteristics of various additive manufacturing methods will be explained below, and the status of their domestic and foreign research status will be introduced.

2 Laser additive manufacturing

Laser additive manufacturing is divided into laser constituency melting technology and laser direct deposition technology. Principles of laser constituency melting and forming technology: It uses laser as a thermal source, and a layer of melting metal powder to directly create near -shaped metal parts.Laser fast forming technology breaks the restrictions of the traditional material removal or deformation processing method, and uses the "discrete+accumulation" tadpole forming idea to achieve the precise forming of the workpiece by synchronizing the powder (wire delivery) or laser melting digital formation.It is a near -net forming manufacturing technology.Laser direct deposition technology is a advanced manufacturing technology developed on the basis of rapid prototype technology and laser melting technology.This technology is based on the principle of discrete/pile. It is layered through the three -dimensional CAD model of the parts, obtains the two -dimensional contour information of each section of the section of the section and generated the processing path. In the inert gas protection environment, the laser with high energy density is used as the heat source as a thermal source.According to the scheduled processing path, the powder or silk that is delivered simultaneously melted layer by layer by layer to achieve direct manufacturing and repair of metal parts.John Hopkins, the University of Pennsylvania, and MTS have developed a high -power CO2 laser "titanium alloy flexible manufacturing" technology and established Aeromet.The company's goal is to achieve the manufacture of high -performance and large -volume titanium alloy parts, especially the rapid formation of titanium alloy parts in large overall reinforcements.The company's main research direction is made of laser additive materials for aerospace components in the military field.The company's titanium alloy parts have been installed.A joint of a certain part of the parts of the F-22 fighter, the wings of the F-18 fighter and the connection loop of the enhanced board and the landing gear connector.Among them, the F-22's connector can reach more than twice the required fatigue life. The enhanced wing root reinforcement reaches more than four times that the fatigue life is required, and the fatigue life of the landing gear rod exceeds 30%of the original.The Griffith research team in the American Sandia National Laboratory proposed that LaserengineEmedNetShaping technology based on laser melting deposition, and used this technology to repair the components of the turbine engine.The types of materials for research include stainless steel, titanium alloy, high -temperature alloy, etc. The strength and plasticity of the molding parts have been significantly improved than forging.The research team also improved the processing accuracy by research and improvement of control software.Its horizontal processing accuracy reaches 0.05mm, the vertical direction processing accuracy reaches 0.4mm, and the surface smoothness of the parts after processing reaches 6.25 μm.But the improvement of molding accuracy will affect the efficiency of forming.It is particularly worth mentioning that by changing the ingredients of metal powder, the research team realizes the gradient changes of the material component on one part, so that the different parts of the parts have different mechanical properties, which provides the optimization of the parts of the parts.A new method.Although the related research on additive manufacturing in China has started late, some related universities and research institutions have the trend of emergence, and in some aspects, they even reach the leading level at home and abroad.Professor Huang Weidong of Northwestern University of Technology proposed the research ideas of laser additive manufacturing technology on the basis of fast prototype manufacturing technology, and conducted relevant research and exploration.And successfully used laser three -dimensional forming technology to create a large -scale aircraft's titanium alloy pillar bar and high -temperature alloy hollow leaves of aircraft engines. The comprehensive mechanical performance is better than forging parts under the same conditions.Professor Wang Huaming of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics uses laser additive technology to create large -sized metal parts and is applied to the development process of new aircraft.Won the first prize of national science and technology progress.But there are some problems with laser additive manufacturing [3].For example: ballization phenomenon, crack sensitivity, residual stress, etc., and the problems of more expensive equipment, low energy utilization, low -melting point metal materials, the contradiction between the heating and deformation of metal materials, the contradiction between the speed and accuracy of the accuracy are also particularly prominent.Especially for aluminum alloy, due to the high light reflectance of liquid aluminum, most of the laser irradiation is reflected on the surface of the liquid surface, resulting in serious energy loss; and the melting point of aluminum alloy is low, the laser energy density is very high, and the large -scale thinner is thin.When the wall parts or shells are added, the warping and deformation are more serious.

3 Electronic beam additive manufacturing

Electronic beam additive manufacturing is divided into feldling deposition forming and melting of electronic beam constituencies. Electronic beam felling technology is also called ElectronBeamfreeFormfabrication (EBF).In the vacuum environment, the metal surface of the electron beam is formed by the surface of the metal. The metal wire is sent to the melting pool and melted through the wire delivery device.Combine to create metal rough parts, and finally perform surface refinement and heat treatment.Features: High deposition efficiency, vacuum environment is conducive to the protection of parts, good internal quality, and multi -functional processing.The process principles of the melting and forming technology of the electronic beam selection [4].First spread a layer of powder and compact the powder plane; then, the electronic beam is melted according to the information of the computer under the control of the computer.The powder gets the required three -dimensional parts.Features: High accuracy of forming, good surface quality of the forming parts, good smoothness, can be used for near -forming additive manufacturing.CALCAM [5] uses electronic beam felling sedimentary additive manufacturing technology. Through the control of process parameters and control systems, it has created a comprehensive mechanical performance than forging TC4 titanium alloy impeller components, and successfully applied to a certain type of aircraftsuperior.Since the establishment of ARCAM in Sweden in 2001, the advantages of electronic beam additive manufacturing technology in the aspects of pink near net forming accuracy, efficiency, cost, and mechanical properties have quickly become a research hotspot in foreign science.The University of Nuremberg, the University of Nuremberg, the University of Warwick, the University of North Carolina, the Boeing Company, Synergeering Group, Germany Faruth, and Volvo of Sweden have successively conducted related research.The United States SCIAKY company cooperated with Lockheedmartin and BOEING in cooperation in the same period. When forming titanium alloy, the maximum forming speed can reach 18kg/h, and the mechanical performance meets the requirements of air service.Italian AVIO Company [8] adopted its own manufacturing equipment to develop the complex TIAL consequences component of the aviation engine and successfully applied to the new generation of aviation engines.In 2006, the Institute of Beijing Aviation Manufacturing Engineering began in -depth research on electronic beam felling technology.Designed and manufactured the first domestic electronic beam felling deposition equipment, and systematically studied the mechanical properties of TC4, TC18, TA15, equal titanium alloy and A100 ultra -high -strength steel.A large number of titanium alloy parts and test parts were developed.In 2012, the titanium alloy parts made of electronic beam feliners were the first to achieve installation applications in the domestic aircraft structure.At present, electronic beam additive manufacturing still faces a series of technical problems, blowing powder, ballization, deformation and residual stress control, surface roughness, etc.Moreover, electronic beam additive equipment is very expensive, and equipment maintenance costs are high.Because electronic beam processing requires vacuum protection, its manufacturing cycle is long.For the manufacturing of the additive material of light alloy, there is also a serious problem of deformation.

4 Other additive manufacturing methods

4.1 Made in the arc added material

The arc additive is also called ShapedMetalDepositationSMD technology.It uses tungsten gas protection welding technology and high density silk.The workpiece is manufactured layer by layer in protecting the gas environment, and the welding robot is directly controlled by the computer CAD model.Usually, accuracy and surface quality are not as good as laser or electronic beam additives.However, it can make workpieces as large as 1M3 and the deposition rate can reach 1kg/h.Therefore, the ability of high -speed arc additives to manufacture large -scale high -density components makes it greatly more advantageous than other methods in this regard.Bain and others of Sheffield University in the United Kingdom used the six -axis -link robot to make arc additives on the two -axis platform on the two -axis platform, and obtained a box of box with a thickness of 20mm.Organizational performance is close to the performance of laser additives under the same conditions.Yin Yuhuan and others of Tianjin University studied using the TIG arc as a thermal source.The results of the study show that when the same layer of formation, the control of the cooling time between the roads can be achieved, and the reasonable control of the cooling time between different layers can be obtained.The effect also plays a vital role.It is also found that although different welding speeds can be used in subsequent welding, although the heat input volume can be effectively controlled, if the difference in welding speed is too large, the stability of the increase in the forming process will be poor.Wang Guilan [7] of Huazhong University of Science and Technology has studied the effects of electromagnetic field on the rapid form temperature field and participation stress on the arc melting accumulation.The peak temperature of the thermal cycle increases, the cooling speed is reduced, and the vertical and horizontal residual stress on the surface of the forming parts decreases.There are also some unavoidable problems in the manufacture of arc additives [8]: Poor powder blowing and ballization have seriously caused poor formal stability, limitation of the types of forming materials, poor comprehensive mechanical performance of forming parts, poor comprehensive mechanical properties, large tissue differences and differences in tissue and differences.More post -processing is required.

4.2 Ultrasonic additive manufacturing

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing UltraSonicadDITIVEMANUFACTING (UAM) as a solid metal forming processing method. It uses ultrasonic welding methods to process multi -layer metals into a three -dimensional shape through cyclical mechanical operations, and finally forms to accurate metal components.The following is the roller ultrasonic welding system. It is composed of two ultrasonic sensors and a welded contact angle. The vibration of the sensor is passed on to a disk -type welding angle.Then the tentacles continuously welded the metal on the substrate.This technology can combine aluminum alloy, copper, stainless steel and titanium alloy to a high -density metallurgy.If it compares it with cutting processing, UAM can make deep seams, cavities, grids, and hive -type internal structures, as well as other traditional cutting processing complex structures that cannot be processed.

5 outlook

After two or three decades of exploration and development, additive manufacturing technology is currently in a flourishing period. On the one hand, it is expected that there are new breakthroughs in technology to improve the requirements for materials, accuracy and efficiency of additive manufacturing;New applications of existing technologies broaden the application areas and scope of additive manufacturing.I believe that in the near future, you can definitely see the larger application of additive manufacturing technology in the aerospace field.

references:

[1] Tian Zongjun, Gu Dongdong, Shen Lida, etc.Laser additive manufacturing technology is used in the field of aerospace to develop [J]. Aviation Manufacturing Technology, 2015 (11): 38-42.

[2] Li Dichen, Tian Xiaoyong, Wang Yongxin, etc.The development of additive manufacturing technology [A].

[3] Song Jianli, Deng Qilin, Ge Zhijun, etc.Nickel -based alloy laser fast forming crack control technology [J]. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2006,3.

[4] Yan Yongnian, Qi Haibo, Lin Feng, etc.Three-dimensional parts of electronic beam constituencies melted rapidly [J]. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2007,43 (6): 87-92.

[5] Yang Xin, Xi Zhengping, Liu Yong, etc.TIAL consecutive electronic beam rapid forming research progress [J]. Rare metal materials and engineering, 2011,40 (12): 2252-2256.

With the approval of the State Council, since 2005, it is a "navigation day" on July 11 every year, and it is also the implementation date of the "World Maritime Day" in my country.

July 11 is the date of Zheng He's first flight to the west. This day has important historical commemorative significance for China's navigation industry.Therefore, July 11th each year is designated as the statutory "navigation day".This is the inheritance and development of China's long history and national spirit.

China is one of the birthplaces of the world's navigation civilization.Zheng He went to the West, 87 years earlier than Columbus discovered the New World in the Americas, 98 years earlier than Dada Gamma, and 116 years earlier than Magellan to the Philippines.Zheng He is the pioneer of the world's navigation.The national spirit contained in Zheng He's navigation has surpassed the national borders and became a world cultural heritage.

An industry insider who participated in the celebration said that all countries who held the Launa Festival have not been as great as China Zhenghe Seven to the West in the context of the anniversary of the anniversary, and have a significant contribution to human sailing.

The Taiwan region also set July 11 as the "Sailing Festival".The Ministry of Communications believes that celebrating the festivals on the same day of the Taiwan Straits will definitely become the emotional bonds connected by Chinese people on both sides of the strait. At the same time, it will also promote the cultural and economic exchanges across the Taiwan Straits, which will help to realize the "three links" and promote the unity of the motherland.In 2005, the theme of China's "navigation day" was "love the motherland, good -neighborly and friendly, and scientific navigation."The person in charge of the Ministry of Communications particularly emphasized that the "navigation day" is also an event day that belongs to the national cultural category of the whole country. The "navigation day" activity is to commemorate the institutionalization, socialization and popularization of Zhenghe's lower Western activities.

It is proposed by China: Zheng He's seven times to the West is the first time that human beings have gained a large -scale feat of ocean. July 11 this year is the 600th anniversary of Zheng He's lower Western Ocean.It has special historical significance.As a navigation and marine country, it is necessary to set up a navigation festival to enhance the people's marine consciousness and the concept of marine land, and to enhance the cohesion of the Chinese nation.

The Ministry of Communications is formally approved by the State Council. It agrees to set up "Lauret Day" from July 11 this year, and also the date of implementation of "World Maritime Day" in my country.

Because: 1. "Violation Day" is a national legal event day led by the government and participating in the national cultural category.It is also a national cultural activity that promotes the popularization of navigation and marine knowledge, promoting and cultivating the spirit of the Chinese nation, and promoting the harmony and unity of society.July 11 this year coincides with the 600th anniversary of Zheng He's west, and the selection of Zheng He's western commemorative day as the "navigation day" in China has special historical significance.

2. The establishment of the "navigation day" and determining the specific implementation date of the "World Maritime Day" in my country will help better fulfill the obligations of members of the international maritime organization, which fully reflects the country's high attention to the navigation cause, which is conducive to promoting China. The long -term historical tradition of good -neighborly and friendly, establishing the international image of peace diplomacy, is conducive to enhancing the emotional cohesion of Chinese people at home and abroad.

In recent years, China Civil Aviation University has attached great importance to science and technology research and development, and science and technology research and development work has achieved fruitful results.First, the construction of the platform is progressing smoothly.Base and intelligent signal and image processing of 7 provincial and ministerial scientific and technological research and development platforms including Tianjin Key Laboratory, and established the Civil Aviation Administration and National Defense Science and Technology Commission Saiwang Available Technology Research and Management Center, laying a good foundation for scientific and technological innovation workEssenceThe second is the rapid growth of scientific research funds and research projects.From 2004 to 2006, the school undertook 38 ministerial projects.Won 2 National Science and Technology Progress Awards and 39 provincial and ministerial science and technology awards.Three years of new scientific research funds nearly 100 million yuan, an average annual increase of 30 %, becoming a leading unit in the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" national major science and technology research project.In 2006, he successfully applied for 7 national "863" project, with a project budget of 57 million yuan.Third, a group of representative aviation scientific research research emerged

——In the field of air traffic management, the "aircraft dynamic flow management system" topic solves the successful development of major pagodas, radar, program control training machines and other air pipe equipment for major problems in the management of air traffic flow management.Application of Yantai, Tianjin and other places.The "airspace planning and evaluation system" has optimized the use of the airspace and has been applied in Xiamen, Xinjiang, Chongqing, Shanghai and other places.

——In the field of machine maintenance.The "Research on Reliability of Civil Engines" has improved flight safety.Reduce maintenance costs and number of hair preparation, and won the second prize of national scientific and technological progress; "aircraft engine failure diagnosis and real -time monitoring" topics.Real -time monitoring and diagnosis of aircraft engine faults to ensure aircraft flight safety; research on the "aircraft parts and components in depth maintenance technology" focuses on aircraft engine components, aircraft accessories maintenance, etc.More than 20 airports including Beijing, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Changsha and other airports.

――在机场工程及设备领域,“飞机集中除冰系统”课题的完成保障了冰雪天气飞机飞行的安全和正点率,Best Reps Sneakers成果已在北京首都机场得到应用,目前正在哈尔滨、frontline information沈阳、长春、呼和浩特、The promotion and application of airports in Xi'an, Taiyuan and other places; the completion of the "airport runway friction coefficient test vehicle" project has achieved domestic production of this kind of equipment.The results of face testing and repair technology research projects are now applied to airports in Zhengzhou, Tianjin, Yinchuan, Wuhan and other places.

——In the field of civil aviation information engineering, the topic of "flight delay early warning and waves and analysis systems" mainly completes the push service of flight operation status monitoring and flight delay early warning information. It is currently verifying the implementation of major domestic hub airports.information.Significantly improve the quality of aviation services.The research results of its social benefits "based on the service architecture -based flight information convenience service system" will support the integration of the entire process of flight operation of multiple civil aviation business systems, with a variety of information methods (web, SMS, WAP, IVR message)Provide travelers with complete, accurate and timely flight information conditions.Improving the quality of civil aviation services has great social benefits.

The above -mentioned typical scientific research achievements focus on the fields of airports, air management, machinery, and civil aviation information engineering in civil aviation, and solve major technical problems in the development of the civil aviation industry.

Seize the opportunity.Provide important support for the sustainable development of the aviation industry in Binhai New District

During the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" period, Tianjin determined to take the development of civil aviation technology industry as the focus of new economic growth points and optimizing the industrial structure.In October 2005, the Civil Aviation Administration of China and the civil aviation technology industrialization base jointly established by the Civil Aviation Administration and Tianjin are located in Binhai New District.This is the only industrialized base that integrates civil aviation technology research and development, manufacturing, and technology services in my country. Its main function is the research and development, manufacturing, and manufacturing of civil aviation technology products such as aircraft parts, air pipe equipment, airborne equipment, and electronic communication equipment. Technical services, etc.In 2006, the major projects of Airbus A320 aircraft settled in Tianjin. This was based on two aircraft in Toulraz and Hamburg, Germany.The total installed line, such a international giant manufacturer's settlement will be settled in Tianjin, which will definitely drive a large number of system supporting manufacturers to invest in Jinjin.

Under the current situation of a large number of civil aviation technology and civil aviation equipment in my country, enhancing its independent research and development capabilities and enhancing positions in the international industry chain has become the key to the sustainable development of the aviation industry in Binhai New District. Powerful aviation manufacturing and technology systems are supported.The Aviation Technology Center and the Aviation Engineering Center of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are its strong technical support system.Strengthening the digestion, absorption and independent innovation of aviation technology products, and improving the research and development capabilities of my country's aviation industry is not only the key to the sustainable development of my country's aviation industry.It is also an important link from the development of the air industry from Tianjin to the development of implanted types, which is related to the future development of my country's aviation industry.

The development of scientific research and university science and technology parks of China Civil Aviation University is directly related to the sustainability of Binhai New Area, especially civil aviation technology industrialization bases.

Through technology research and development.Create a complete chain of the combination of production, university and research of civil aviation industry

The Party Central Committee and the State Council include Tianjin Binhai New Area in the National Development Strategy, the establishment of the Airbus A320 and the establishment of the Civil Aviation Science and Technology Industrialization Base.It is an important part of the complete chain of the integration of the industry, university and research of the civil aviation industry, and the integration of the industry -university and research of the civil aviation industry, and it has become an important part of the independent technological innovation system of Binhai New Area.We firmly believe that with the active efforts of China Civil Aviation University and the strong support of the Tianjin government, it will definitely be the development of the aviation industry in Binhai New District, enhance the regional core competitiveness of Tianjin and even the Bohai Rim region,The main undertaking base and the "Silicon Valley" developed by China Civil Aviation Science and Technology made positive contributions.

With the establishment of the Civil Aviation Science and Technology Industrialization Base and the Airbus A320 assembly project, they settled in Tianjin. There are more than 70 domestic and foreign aviation companies, including 8 Fortune 500 companies, and more than 30 companies with clear investment intentions.Five registered settlements, the entry of large enterprises has a important role in strengthening Tianjin aviation brand and improving the aviation industry chain.Create the Binhai New Area aviation industry that integrates civil aviation technology products, manufacturing, and technology services. Whether it is airport equipment, air pipe equipment, airborne equipment, and aircraft engine assembly, manufacturing, maintenance, etc.The research and development of airborne equipment, etc. are an indispensable and important part of the entire industrial chain.

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